Michele Walsh, V01, Maine’s state veterinarian, responds
The short answer is yes. All domestic poultry—whether a commercial operation in Iowa with 1,000 egg-laying hens or a single Rhode Island Red that also doubles as a family pet in Massachusetts—are equally susceptible to the avian influenza virus strains that have crippled the U.S. poultry industry over the past year. While fewer backyard flocks have been affected by the current outbreak, we know that this virus really does a number on domestic turkeys, chickens, Guinea hens and other birds that people keep in backyard flocks.
If there’s a pond or wetlands nearby that wild ducks or geese visit frequently, keep your animals away from that area. If you have a coop or chicken tractor [a mobile coop], use a fine mesh to keep small song birds out, because there have been some reports that they carry the virus. Place feed and water containers inside a structure or away from your coop’s borders to discourage wild visitors. If your birds are free range, make sure they aren’t congregating around wild bird feeders or, better yet, ditch feeders altogether to prevent that interaction.
If you visit other people with backyard poultry, be sure to disinfect your hands, your clothing and the bottoms of your shoes before going back to your own birds. Any new bird should be quarantined for at least 21 days before it’s introduced to your flock.
The number-one sign of avian influenza in backyard poultry is unexplained, sudden death. Infected birds sometimes have a lack of energy or appetite, decreased egg production or swelling or respiratory symptoms like a cough or sneeze. If you suspect you have a sick bird, contact your state veterinarian. Information about the current outbreak is available at the USDA hotline: 866-536-7593.
Influenza viruses are infamous for their ability to mutate, or change, allowing the virus to infect other animals, including humans. We have not seen evidence of this with the strains that have caused the current outbreak in the U.S., but we are watching the situation closely.